Evaluating connectivity through an estimation of both the length of the least-cost path between patches, as well as the underlying ecological cost incurred to travel it.
A style of management that assumes continual monitoring of the landscape and allows for the flexibility of adjusting conservation goals to shifting conditions.
A specific process or set of rules to solve a problem. For example, algorithms from graph theory can be applied to calculations of connectivity in the landscape.
Caused by or relating to humans.
The act of physically moving individuals from one location to another. This is a suggested management strategy, particularly for species who have difficulty dispersing and who may be under immediate threat of losing suitable habitat due to climate change.
When mapping potential corridors, a barrier is any physical object or type of landscape that prevents an individual from moving between patches.
A group of landscape metrics that measures how important a patch is in allowing species to “flow” through the landscape i.e. how central the patch is to other patches.
The idea that connectivity in a landscape can be modeled like an electrical circuit map, with properties like resistance and current having ecological counterparts like individual movement and gene flow.
Patches of habitat that will remain suitable for species even as climate change alters current habitats. For example, high elevation mountaintops may act as climate refugia in the future for many lowland species, since they will remain (relatively) cool under climate change.
A corridor or other landscape form that connects current habitat to climate refugia.
Refers to a species that can only persist in the wild as long as it has management intervention.
The central area within a patch or home range that generally defines where an individual is most likely to be found.
Also measured as resistance, the amount of effort required to move through the landscape.
The benefits provided to humans by many species when ecosystems are fully functioning (ex. pollination by bees, water filtration in streams, carbon storage).
An aerial corridor used by any volant species to migrate or move long distances.
The transfer of genetic material through a population, which can be used as a measure of how connected populations are.
The degree to which populations have a high level of gene flow between them. Populations have high genetic connectivity if there is high gene flow and low diversity between populations.
The idea that species richness in habitat patches is dependent on habitat amount, rather than patch size and isolation, as suggested in Fahrig 2013.
Something that has mixed composition, such as a forest that contains a high diversity of trees.
Something that is of uniform composition, such as a forest that contains only one species of tree.
Recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils. One conservation strategy is to use land facets as coarse units to protect biological activity in general rather than protecting individual species within an area.
Indices developed to explain landscape structure and changes on a map. Examples of landscape metrics include patch area, patch connectivity, number of patches, total edge, degree of isolation, or patch distribution.
Physical structures or facilities that are configured as a line, such as roads, highways, tracks, railways, power lines, or pipelines. Linear infrastructure often acts as a barrier to animal movement, but can sometimes act as a corridor for species that are able to utilize the remaining habitat within the infrastructure.
The idea that connectivity in landscape can be viewed as an interdepenent network, and that changes in nodes and linkages can have unexpected consequences for species movement.
A central area of habitat that is distinguished from its surrounding matrix, such as an island of forest surrounded by agricultural fields.
A location afforded special status due to its ecological importance. Protected areas can be terrestrial or marine, and level of conservation protection can vary by location.
A type of data used in Geographic Information Systems that codes information as a grid. Information is held within each pixel, rather than as a discrete object such as a point or line (vector).
A method used to determine how species use resources within and area, and to make predictions about how landscapes can be better connected based on resource use.
The area next to a river or stream that supports hydrophilic terrestrial species, often unique from more upland species.
A population that is decreasing (deaths > births) due to low quality habitat or other detrimental qualities of the landscape.
A population that is increasing (deaths < births) due to high quality habitat or other beneficial qualities of the landscape.
Randomness. Environmental conditions are often described as stochastic because they have a high degree of unpredictability.
Whether or not a region in the landscape is able to support species. An area that has high suitability for one species may have low suitability for another species.
A species used as a representative for all species of a particular type of habitat, often well-known and of particular conservation concern. This species acts as an “umbrella” for all other species under it: if its habitat is protected, then all other species in that habitat will benefit from the protection.